Turificati (II)

“The world is changed. I feel it in the water. I feel it in the earth. I smell it in the air.”


Parintii pre-niceeni au scris in repetate randuri impotriva folosirii tamaiei in scopuri cultice. Putem gasi astfel de exemple in Epistola catre Barnaba, la Iustin Martirul si Filosoful, Atenagora atenianul, Clement alexandrinul, Tertullian, Origen, Lactantius sau Arnobius*. Ei considerau aceasta practica “a vain abomination”, una care “was introduced to humanity by wicked angels”. Este mai bine sa suferi martiriul “rather than to take incense in three fingers…” Nu doar a arde tamaie, ci si a comercializa-o era un lucru interzis crestinilor. In Evanghelii, Magii „offered to the then infant Lord that frankincense and myrrh and gold, to be, as it were, the close of worldly sacrifice and glory, which Christ was about to do away.”

Interesant e ca Tertullian mentioneaza practica tamaierii in a sa De idolatria tocmai intr-un capitol dedicat astrologiei. Stia el ce stia…

Few centuries later though,

„The architectonic chora becomes the container of the achoretos Logos. The presence of the divine pneuma was perceptible olfactory through incense. The multivalence of pneuma, in signifying both breath and fragrance, appears in a kontakion of the enkainia of Hagia Sophia:

Here, noetically, sacrifices in the spirit and in truth rather than in smoke from burnt offerings or in streams of gushing blood [from pagan sacrifices] are untiringly offered to God in [the form of the] smell of incense. The cries beseeching with piety and the songs of psalmic verses expressed with contrition  and chanted in the organs of breath put to rest the demonic  onslaught of passions, establishing [instead] temperate pleasure [leading to] salvation, which Christ gave as gift to the mortals.”

[also here]

Literatura “bizantina” tarzie este arhiplina de interpretari si incurajari fumigene. Mai sus am oferit doar un exemplu din j’de mii. S-a ajuns pana acolo incat calugarii erau indemnati sa manance cenusa din cadelnita in semn de penitenta sau in scopuri terapeutice. Mai tarziu, asemenea practici au intrat si in lumea laica.

E interesant cum majoritatea cato’ si orto’ continua sa sustina pana astazi ca atat tamaierea, cat si icoanele, nu trebuie adorate per se (asa cum faceau paganii, dupa opinia acelorasi). Ele simbolizeaza, trimit catre niste realitati mai inalte bla, bla. Asa cum am vazut, Parintii apostolici** sunt foarte radicali cand vine vorba de folosirea anumitor accesorii in cadrul cultului. Astazi, tamaia, imaginile si apa sfintita (toate aceste chestiuni avand puternice radacini in lumea pagana), sunt la ele acasa in crestinism. Asadar, ce mai lipseste? Exact. De ce nu am sacrifica si animale pe altar, pana la urma? Simbolic, evident. Nu sacrificam animalul per se (asa cum faceau paganii, nu?), ci ii taiem gatul de-a dreptul. Dar simbolic! Asa cum pupam imagini de-a dreptul, dar simbolic. Ardem tamaie de-a dreptul, dar simbolic…

Lucrurile au continuat sa “de-genereze” la modul accelerat. In Bizant avem ghicirea cu icoane (admirata atata timp cat era practicata de fete imperiale*** / condamnata cand era vorba de prostii de la tara). In Apus lucrurile au devenit la fel de problematice. Pana la Reforma.

> Part. III.


* Doar cateva citate patristice referitoare la tamaie:

The Epistle of Barnabas (writen between 70 – 131):

– „incense is a vain abomination which God has abolished.” – cap. 2: The Jewish sacrifices are now abolished.

Justin Martyr (c. 100 – c. 165):

– „we are […] declaring, as we have been taught, that He has no need of streams of blood and libations and incense…” – First Apology, cap. 13: Christians serve God rationally [interesant titlu, huh?]

– „incense was introduced to humanity by wicked angels in order to win their allegiance away from God.” – Second Apology, cap. 5: How the angels transgressed. Un pic mai tarziu, Origen (c. 185 – c. 254) va sustine acelasi lucru: arderea de tamaie could please and retain demons on earth (vezi: Exhortation to Martyrdom, part. VI: The criminal character of idolatry. The cult of demons.). However, in the sixth century, Symeon Stylites the Younger used incense precisely to drive away those same demons. lol.

Lactantius (c. 240 – c. 320):

– „For to choose to be tortured and slain, rather than to take incense in three fingers, and throw it upon the hearth…” – The Divine Institutes, Book 5, cap. 19: Of Virtue and the Tortures of Christians, and of the Right of a Father and Master.

Arnobius of Sicca (- c. 330), in Against the Heathen, his only extant book on Christianity, wrote more about (and against the religious use of) incense than all other ante-Nicene Fathers combined.

In timpul lui Teodosie I (347 – 395) (cinstit ca sfant) no sacrifice in any place or any city was permitted. Privately, no incense, no votive candles or burning lamps were to be used. A burnt offering or the divining of entrails became a treasonable offense, while rites such as the veneration of a statue or even tying a ribbon around a tree, was threatened with the loss of property by its confiscation by the Government.

** Si nu numai. De ex., in plin sec. XII, canonisti de talia unui Balsamon sau Zonaras inca mai aminteau despre how persecutors used incense to force Christians to sacrifice and apostasy.

*** Vezi, de ex., despre Imparateasa Zoe si icoana „Antiphonetes” sau despre icoana Mariei din Blachernai. Exemplele despre prezenta de icoane plimbarete, vorbitoare, mirositoare, prevestitoare etc. in Muntele Athos sunt nesfarsite.