Tag Archives: bizant

Damaschin si secularizarea


Din nou din incercarile’mi de a descoperi bazele ideologice ale secularizarii. Zilele trecute am dat peste o chestie fascinanta: un tratat, incomplet, al lui Ioan Damaschin, despre dragoni (publicat in PG 94, 1599-1602). Iata doua extrase:

> Some people believe that dragons can take the human form. Having turned into people, they start to associate with them, appear to steal women and consort with them. So we would ask [those who tell such stories]: how many intelligent natures did God create? And if they do not know the answer, we will respond: two – angels and humans. But if a dragon changes its form, becoming at one moment a serpent, at another a man, so it follows with all possible clarity that dragons are intelligent beings exceeding men greatly, which has not [ever] been true, and never will be.

> There’s also this legend that dragons can be driven away by thunder. When I’ve heard this I laughed!


> How is it possible to see a dragon now as human-like and intelligent creature, now as serpent and rebel against God? Ignorance is truly an unreliable thing!

(ignoranta e privita foarte prost de Parinti din cauza relatiei sale cu superstitia)

Well… daca partea cu “which has not [ever] been true” e falsa, partea cu “and never will be” e horror. Si inca o chestie. Faza cu “Ignorance is truly an unreliable thing” trebuie inteleasa in contextul in care exista o echivalenta foarte clar definita intre superstitie si ignoranta. Cei care credeau asa niste “basme” in timpul lui Johny (sec. VIII) erau ori prosti, ori pagani. Your pick. Ceea ce incearca tipul sa ne spuna e ca, according to the christian dogma there are NO fantastic animals, that can do unbelievable tricks, whatsoever. Ce insemna lucrul asta? Basically insemna sa extragi un whatever animal din lantul simbolic si meaningful din care facea parte si sa-l reduci la o bucata de carne. Exact asta ne spune Sfantul John: dragonii are just a piece of meat. Nothing special about them. Slay them all!


Despre Damaschin si “cerul desacralizat”, aici.

Bucati din respectiva opera a Damaschinului au fost traduse si in engleza.


Citeam azi la Avva Danielou* o chestie foarte interesanta:

“Idolatry consists in the fact that natural realities, which are the epiphanies of God, are worshiped in themselves.”

Acum ceva timp in urma, scriam ca universul crestin a fost desacralizat progresiv, dar ireversibil, iar energiile necreate ale lui Palamas (1296 – 1359), o incercare destul de disperata de a readuce sacrul mai aproape de noi, nu au prea facut nici o branza. Dimpotriva.

S-a batut mult apa in piua pe tema palamismului. Primita cu destul de multa raceala la timpul respectiv (nu au lipsit nici acuzatiile de erezie, sosite chiar din tabara orto’), nu a reusit sa se impuna nici pana in ziua de astazi cu adevarat, Palamas ramanand un ganditor marginal. De ce? Well, imho, nu pentru ca ar fi fost foarte sofisticat & shit, prea abstract sau prea destept (sunt cateva campusuri studentesti in care capelele ii sunt dedicate). Nu. A ramas si va ramane marginal din doua motive:

1. doctrina energiilor necreate poate conduce destul de usor spre o re-divinzare, re-sacralizare a cosmosului. Poate conduce destul de usor inspre o mutare de atentie dinspre Dumnezeu spre creat – o creatie ce devine Creatie, una care aparent inceteaza a mai fi “neinsufletita si nesimtitoare”. Printre hotararile Sinodului isihast din 1351, Constantinopol, se numara una care spune:

“The term deity (theotis) may be applied not only to the essence of God but to the energies as well.”**

…energii care penetreaza intreaga creatie, evident. Uuuuups, not good!

Sa nu fiu inteles gresit. Sunt destui Parinti (until Damaschin) care au recomandat lectura Cartii naturii, e drept. Cu o diferenta fundamentala, exprimata sugestiv de Johny-cu-gura-de-24K:

“Dumnezeu a aratat pamantul netocmit si fara forma pentru ca nu cumva oamenii, din pricina nevoii ce o au de el, sa-l cinsteasca mai mult decat merita!”***

Varlaam, the bad guy pt. orto’, cu accentul sau pe ratiune, a fost cu mult mai patristic decat Greg. Concentrandu-se “on the mind’s intellectual power to obtain unmystical knowledge”, el avea in spate o intreaga turma de Parinti care striga impotriva imaginatiei:

“To him, the hesychast monks see only symbolic apparitions and allusions in their imaginations. This imaginary light may even be a hallucination”.

2. Whoaaaa, ce mult am scris deja o.O Ok, 2 alta data. Peace!


* Danielou J. – The Conception of History in the Christian Tradition. The Journal of Religion 30 (1950), p. 178.

** Kallistos Ware – “God Hidden and Revealed: The Apophatic Way and the Essence-Energies Distinction,” Eastern Christian Review, vol. 7, 1975, p. 130.

*** Omilia II la Geneza.

Si hellooooo, pentru cei care mai au inca dubii, Lanternativa nu este un blog religios. Stiu ca suna weird, dar, sincer, nu e.

Din nou Bizantul

Legat de traditia imnografica bizantina este si costumul pe care psaltii il purtau in timpul oficiilor liturgice:

Ioan Kukuzelis reprezentat in costum de proto-psalt

intr-un manuscris din sec. XV

Recent am descoperit un performance al corului Romeiko care, alaturi de scoaterea la lumina a unor compozitii prea lung uitate, a reconstruit, pentru prima data, si costumele traditionale pe care le purtau cantorii bizantini:


The cantors (psaltes) wore wide-brimmed hats (skiadion) or tall “bullet” hats (skaranikon) and dressed in special cloaks (kamision and phelonion) girded with a belt (sfiktourion).  This cantors’ costume tradition was lost after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 leaving the cantor dressed only with a black robe (rason) of the Eastern Church. However, for the first time since the Fall, Yorgos Bilalis has joined forces with costume designer Fatima Lavor-Peters to recreate these Byzantine vestments as they are described in several treatises or depicted on Byzantine frescoes and manuscript miniatures.

Canon in cinstea Parintelui Iacob

Compus de Mihail Psellos (sec. XI).

[Traducere de Andrew White & Przemyslaw Marciniak.]

Drunkenness, Drink and Dance, Jacob, it‘s your festival!

Clapping with your buddies, pleasures, delights,

Boogieing with cymbals, squeezing out those bunches,

Wine-trodden grapes, bellies filled with jugs‘ worth!

Longing for luxuries, Jacob, you spurned

Every single ascetic practice, moderation for starters,

Then sleeping on the ground, heavy training,

Prayer and tears and, father, raising yourself up to God!

He’s beyond miracles, good Jacob of Synkellos monastery;

Like a vat he takes in the grapes and,

His throat like a press, he squeezes out the wine

Like his stomach was the jug, no need for decanting!

Pissing it out you’re thirsty again, Jacob, you insatiable beast,

The flaming fever for drink unquenched,

The unbearable scorching and parched earth,

Drinking like an inferno or a sea, never filling your stomach.


Francesco Traiani – The Triumph of Thomas Aquinas (1340)

Toma, figura pe care o venerezi sau o scuipi. Nu o poti iubi, evident. Nici ignora. Ca esti oriental sau occidental, te lovesti de el. Nu ai cum altfel.

Fragment din imnul* compus de Maestrul bizantin Joannes Plousiadenos** in onoarea lui Thomas Aquinas. Interpreteaza corul Cappella Romana:


* Aflat in biblioteca Manastirii Kutlumus, Athos (MS Koutloumousi 448). Descoperit in 1995 de D. Conomos.

** 1429-1500.

Pentru mai multe info despre Plousiadenos vezi:

Music as religious propaganda: Venetian polyphony and a Byzantine response to the Council of Florence.

Recherches sur la vie de Jean Plousiadénos (Joseph de Méthone) (1429?-1500).

Thomas de Aquino Byzantinus.